DRSABC Action Plan

Updated: Sep 3

The DRSABC Action Plan is an important tool for treating a casualty who is in a life-threatening situation.

There is an estimated 30,000 cardiac arrests each year in Singapore, the action plan is extensively taught as part of the Singapore First Aid Training curriculum.

It is estimated that each minute of delay reduces one's chances of surviving by 10%.

In essence, you only have a

10-minute window to deal with the situation.

DRSABC is a mnemonic/acronym used in first-aid training to help you remember how to respond in a medical emergency.

Danger, Response, Send for Help, AED, Breathing, and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) are the acronyms.

Make sure you take a CPR training if you haven't already — it might be the difference between life and death.

Knowing how to respond in the DRSABC manner allows you to keep someone breathing, reduce their pain, and help them survive until an ambulance comes.


If you find yourself in an emergency situation, assess the risk to yourself, onlookers, and the injured/ill individual before attempting to assist. When going to the aid of another person, do not put yourself in danger.


Check to check if the individual is conscious. When you talk to them, touch their hands, or pinch their shoulder, do they respond?

Talk to them loudly and shake their shoulders gently to communicate (not vigorously). The individual is unconscious if you don't get a response.


If you realize that the situation necessitates the use of emergency services, the first thing you should do is send/shout/summon for assistance.

Call 995 and respond to the operator's inquiries. Bystanders should provide a clear path/space around the patient to allow emergency personnel to promptly locate the patient.


If an automated external defibrillator (AED) is available, use it on an unconscious individual who is not breathing. Ask for one in many public venues, clubs, and organizations.

An AED is a device that administers an electrical shock to the heart to stop any abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia) and allow the normal pulse to resume. Follow the voice prompts and directions.

Turn the person onto their side and angle their head to retain their airway if they respond to defibrillation. Make sure the AED is acceptable for use on a kid if the patient is a youngster.


Look for chest motions to see if they are breathing (up and down). Put your ear close to their lips and nose to listen.

Place your hand on the bottom portion of their chest to check for breathing. Turn the individual onto their side if they are unconscious but breathing, making sure their head, neck, and spine are in proper alignment. Until the ambulance/paramedic arrive, keep an eye on their respiration.

C - CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)

If the individual is unconscious and not breathing, make sure they are flat on their back and lay the heel of one hand in the center of their chest, with the other hand on top. Compress to one-third of the person's chest depth by pressing down hard. Repeat this process 30 times. Take 2 deep breathes. Tilt their head back gently by raising their chin to get the breath in. Pinch their nostrils shut, then press your open lips firmly over their open mouth and blow hard into it.